Position paper on Post 2010 Target
minimize the driver which cause biodiversity loss and
maximize the all efforts to maintain and restore biodiversity”
(PDF1.36MB Japanese /English）
Nature Conservation Society of Japan (NACS-J), established in 1951, have been devoted ourselves to conserve biodiversity in Japan. We make advocacy work on public development which cause to biodiversity loss, bring up local conservation leaders and established research and monitoring scheme for local nature conservation which led by citizen.
One highlight of tenth Conference of Parties to Convention on Biological ｄiversity(CBD-COP10) held in October 2010 is to review Strategic Plan of CBD, that is, setting new target, so called “Post 2010 Target”. Post 2010 Target will discuss several international meeting, such as 14th meeting of Subsidiary Body of Technical and Technological Assistance, 3rd meeting of Working Group of Implementation and Review for COP10 decision. Biodiversity Indicator Partnership(BIP) led by UNEP-Word Conservation Monitoring Center and 3rd Global Biodiversity Outlook also contribute its process.
This position paper shows the principle direction and point of view of NACS-J prior to those reviewing process. We continue to represent our position on a timely basis.
(1) Review of the effort for 2010 target in Japan
●The main threats to biodiversity caused by human activities like developments and invasive alien species have not been removed in Japan. A series of basic onservation law and framework have been established but concrete actions for achieving 2010 ｔarget are still not sufficient in all sectors.
(2) Ideal direction for Post 2010 Target
●We recognize that biodiversity is unique and endemic to a local and in principal can not be replaced by others through economic measure such as market mechanism. To stop the further loss of biodiversity by 2020, we need to minimize or remove the driver which cause biodiversity loss and maximize the all effort to maintain and restore biodiversity.
●Biodiversity conservation requires engagement of all global citizens, and Governments, private sectors, citizens, NGOs and experts should understand biodiversity and should be actors to achieve new strategic plan and target.
(3) NACS-J action plan to achieve post 2010 target.
NACS-J will promote community-based biodiversity conservation program to achieve post 2010 target.
(1) State of Japan
We, NACS-J, recognize four crises summarized by 3rd National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan are more seriousthan recognition expressed in Fourth National Report of Japan.
1. Crisis caused by human activities and developments
Large scaled public developments which destroy wildlife habitats are still ongoing and become national agenda as conservation issues, such as, reclamation of wetland and
coral reefs (constructing USA military base at Oura bay in Okinawa-islands, reclamation of Awase tidal flat), river modifications (Sanru-dam in Hokkaido, Yoshino river estuary) and road constructions. The rate of loss and segmentation of natural forest is getting slow but it is rather because of no remaining natural forests which can be logged caused by decades of human activities. Illegal taking of rare species is also continuing as serious threatening pressure, as seen in the examples as yanbaru long-armed scarab beetle (Cheirotonus jambar) and Cymbidium dayanum
2. Crisis caused by reduction of human appropriate intervention to nature
Biodiversity loss in Satoyama which has been maintained by human livelihood continues and our research discovered that 40% of Satoyama site were suffering from shortage of actor and successor. Maintaining healthy primary industry is key driver for maintaining biodiversity especially for maintaining environment like Satoyama.
3. Crisis caused by human induced organism.
There are increasing impact from introduced turtle, expanding of chytridiomycosis、ecosystem disturbance by raccoon and so on. Especially, in Ogasawara-islands and
Ryukyu-islands which are habit of many endemic species.
Deeply negative effect are accelerated by invasive alien species such as green anole (Anolis carolinensis) and java mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) has
4. Crisis caused by climate change
Habitat changing of sensitive and vulnerable population for environmental change such like coral reef and high land plants is occurring. Threat to biodiversity by climate change is still high concern.
5. Relationship with biodiversity in other countries
Many of developed country like Japan import foods and natural resources from all over the world. Exporting countries have degraded their biodiversity and utilize natural resources in unsustainable manner. Those caused loss of ecosystem services which should benefit to them and caused accelerating poverty. In same time, importing foods and forest resources become the driver of degradation of primary industry in developed country. Such international material flow is driver of continuous biodiversity loss.
(2) Effort to achieving 2010 target.
2010 target does not meet because human activities which induced biodiversity loss are not regulated. In Japan, awareness and recognition of CBD and its 2010 target was shortage in government as well as all sector. Nevertheless 2010 target and strategic plan was adopted in 2002, Japanese government set 2010 target in their national strategic goal in November 2007.
There are several positive progresses in institutional levelbut there are many problem in effectiveness.
<Building legislative framework>
●Since 2002, assessment of threatened species (Red Data Book) was made in all taxonomic groups. Biodiversity related new laws like Act on regulating Invasive Alien Species(2004) and Basic Act on Biodiversity(2008) had passed. Reviewing national
biodiversity strategy was made periodically (2002 and 2007). There are good progresses in basic legislativeframework for biodiversity conservation.
●On the other hands, reconsideration to human activities and public development relating biodiversity destruction and degradation were not done and it is notenough to address the driver for biodiversity loss.
Actual policy issues are;
1. Current environment impact assessment (EIA) schemehas many problems to ensure “No Net Loss” of biodiversity or minimize its impact from development activities.
Screening process of EIA should include notonly type of activities and scale of development butalso degree of impact to biodiversity. And legislation of strategic environment assessment (SEA) which startsEIA process in planning phase of development is required.
2. Designation of protected area which is important for biodiversity conservation. NACS-J Plant Community Red Data Book revealed that many aquatic plantpopulations were endangered. Protected Area planning in wetland, river, coastal line and costal zone are insufficient
3. Elimination and avoidance negative impact to ecosystem by invasive alien species and climate changeneed to be promoted
<Awareness raising and participation of public general>
●NGO and citizen works for research and conservation of neighboring nature like Satoyama, wetland and seacoast. Some private sector and local government make biodiversity conservation action or local conservation strategy.
●On the other hand, National Census in 2009 shows 61.5 % of people have not heard the words “Biodiversity”. We can see a little progress in awareness raising.
<Utilization of scientific information>
●Scientific information for biodiversity conservation iscollected by various scientist and civil network. But theoutcome is not fully utilized for policy-decision. Publicsector like Biodiversity Center of Japan should play therole for biodiversity science clearing house beyond ministerial boundary.
Large problem for biodiversity conservation in Japan are that biodiversity conservation is not mainstreamed in allpolicy, government does not address this issues as high political agenda and efforts and outcomes made by various sector such as scientists, citizen, NGOs and private sectorsare not well utilized in policy development.
●The phrase of new target should be like “By 2020, to stop the loss of biodiversity, minimize the driver which cause biodiversity loss and maximize the all efforts to
maintain and restore biodiversity”.
●All sectors recognize the essential role of biodiversity and ecosystem service for human survival and wellbeing, maintain the state of biodiversity in the level of
2010 or more and ensure sustainable relationship between people and nature
(2)Basic policy for achievement of new target
●Recognize that biodiversity is unique and local endemism, in principal can not alternate others and is not easy to deal through economic measure like market
mechanism. Therefore action to prevent the loss is most prior option to achieve the new target.
●Biodiversity conservation as well as climate change measure is the agendas which all global citizen should tackle. Therefore all global citizen should recognize to
the needs to deepen the understanding of biodiversity which supports safe and health of our life.
●Ensure citizen participation to enable not only government but also local government, private sector, citizen, NGO and scientist to be actors for
implementation of strategic plan through promoting process transparency and sharing information.
(3)Requirement to achieving the new target
1. Promotion of strengthen the legislative measure and program
●Each parties should establish systematic legislativeframework to promote conservation and elimination of biodiversity loss drivers.
●Encourage each parties to set buildup target to post 2010 target
●Reconsider to large scale public development made by government and local government, which is main threatto biodiversity in Japan.
2. Utilization of scientific information and development of indicator.
●Scientific indicator should be developed in consideration with not only components of biodiversity (area of forest, number of protected species) but also connectivity with
different ecosystems like mountain, river and sea and health of ecosystem function.
●Build system to feedback outcomes of biodiversity monitoring by citizen and NGO in local level into scientific indicator.
●When people make decision on land use and development, ensure such decision making with involvement of local communities and with inclusion of natural science knowledge and sociological knowledgeand with evaluation of cultural value of biodiversity which were brought up in local.
3. Promotion of biodiversity friendly primary industry
●Strengthen and promote current certification mechanismof products and encourage new further effort on certification in order to promote sustainable agriculture,
forestry and fishery to avoid degradation of biodiversity.
(4) Framework for ensuring implementation and review post2010 target
1. Capacity building for promoting implementation
●Build education and capacity building system on biodiversity conservation in each administrative, privateand civil sector.
●Build enabling condition to promote guideline on making local and private sector biodiversity conservation strategy.
●Ensure continuity of money in establishment of financialmechanism of maintaining biodiversity and the use of such financial mechanism should reflect the NGOs opinion in each country.
●Secretariat of CBD and NGOs should work with closer cooperation, promote measure in citizen level and setframework that NGO actively engage to achievement of CBD target in each country.
2. Promoting mechanism to implementation
●WGRI should continue to its effort and each country should set working group of implementation with participation of scientists, NGOs and citizen in their country.
●Party should submit national report on progress to Post2010 target to COP11 with obligation of public hearing process to citizen and NGOs.
NACS-J will take following action to achieve post 2010 target as well as realize biodiversity conservation.
Site level protection threatened by development.
●Biodiversity degrading developments like reclamation of coastal line and dam construction are still going on.
We make effort to eliminate the driver of biodiversity loss through monitor the development activities and implementation of EIA and advocacy work.
Building good practice/model of biodiversity conservationand sustainable use with multi stakeholder engagement
●We promote to establish pioneer practice for sustainable community development based on local ecosystem management and cooperation with local community and governmental agency by AKAYA project and AYA project.
Promoting local biodiversity monitoring and conservation by hands of scientists and citizens.
●We facilitate evaluation and conservation of endemic biodiversity through monitoring for world heritage siteand nature conservation area and citizen based
monitoring for neighboring nature like Satoyama, wetlands and coastal line
●We play the role of interface between government and scientists/citizen in utilization of scientific information.
“Way to Biodiversity” linking biodiversity and citizen
●To ensure people aware and recognize the value of neighboring nature and its ecosystem services. We will
1. identify “ecosystem monitoring map”,
2. publish biodiversity conservationist guide,
3. conduct “feel biodiversity training seminar”,
4. promote citizen leading research,
5. match-making for civil activities and company CSR activities,
6. study tour of biodiversity conservation challengeand its solution
Biodiversity conservation education
●We bring up local conservation leader through grass-root nature conservation education by using NACS-JNature Conservation Educator program which had brought up 20,000 people since 1978.