Ecological study on growth properties of major tree species at a selective logging forest stand in the equatorial rain forest area, west sumatra インドネシア西スマトラ州の熱帯多雨林内択伐林分における主要樹種の生育特性に関する生態学的研究

Authors著者名

Chairul Mahmud and Suwirmenカイルール・モハメッド1)

Affiliations著者所属

  1. 1) Department of biology, faculty of mathmatics and natural science, Andalas university, Padang, West Sumatra, 2001

Summary要約

Phenological properties of secondary tree species were assessed based on seasonal patterns of their litter-fall rates and stem growth rates in the humid tropics, Sumatra, Indonesia. Major properties were constant leaf-fall rates throughout the year and intensive flower/fruit-fall within a few months. They both accounted for 65% of total species number. Litter-fall patterns of observed 23 species could be categorized into 3 groups. Typical pioneer species belonged to a group with constant leaf-fall and flower/fruit-fall rates throughout the year. Seasonal changes of stem growth rates could be classified into 4 types. They were (1) Linear type (46% in tree number) with constant growth rates throughout the observation period, (2) Lag type (21%) with low growth rates at the initial period of this observation, (3) Sigmoid type (17%) with low growth rates at the initial and last periods of this observation, and (4) Step type (17%) with discontinuous growth patterns. Relationships between these phenological properties and some environmental and morphological factors would be cleared in the successive observation of this study.


スマトラの熱帯雨林域での二次林樹種の生育特性、特に植物季節学的特性について、落葉枝の落下速度の季節性や幹の肥大生長にみられる季節性から調べた研究である。落葉速度の季節変化のパターンでは、1年を通じてほぼ一定の速度で落葉する種が多く、対象種数全体の 65% を占めた。また、花・果実の落下速度では、1年の内の数ヶ月間に集中して落下するパターンが多く、このタイプも全体の 65% を占めた。この研究で対象とした 23種について、落葉速度と花・果実の落下速度の両速度の組み合わせを用いて分類すると、 3つのグループに整理できることが明らかとなった。典型的な先駆樹種は、落葉と花・果実の落下パターンが、ともに 1年を通じて一定として特徴づけられるグループに属した。一方、幹の肥大生長速度の季節変化は、そのパターンから下記の 4つのカテゴリーに分類できた。それらは、 (1) 1年を通じて一定の速度を維持したもの(全体数の 46% を占めた)、 (2) 観測初期の生長速度が低く、後半に高まったもの(21%)、 (3) 観測の初期と後期に生長速度が低かったもの(17%)、 (4) 非連続的な生長をし、その結果としてステップ状の生長パターンを描いたもの(17%)である。これら生育特性と環境要因さらには各種がもつ形態的特性との関連性について、この研究を引き続き継続することにより明らかにしたいと考えている。

(推薦者:米田 健 訳)

Introduction

This research project is organized by Chairul Mahmud with recommendation by Dr. Tsuyoshi Yoneda, Kagoshima University. We intend to continue our research for several years from the fiscal 2000. The project could start from August 2000 under the financial support by the "Pro Nature Fund" by the Nature Conservation Society of Japan (NACS-J) and the Pro Natura Foundation-Japan.

Research objective

Phenological studies of forest have been made from various view points, i.e. description of the relation between the phenology and climate conditions (Jackson, 1978), the phenological variation at some altitudinal levels, (Burger, 1974) and the relationships between the phenology and growth pattern of trees (Maruyama, 1979). This study aims to reveal living strategies of secondary tree species in the equatorial rain forest area with special reference to the impact of human activities. Several growth traits were studied throughout the year by field and laboratory observation. Phenological study was conducted by the litter-trap method, and seasonal changes of stem growth rates were measured with dendrometers. Some physiological properties such as dark respiration, water permeability and density of stomata were also observed under this project.

We try to make clear the phenological and physical traits of these of secondary tree species as living strategies. These results would be useful to forest and plant conservation in the tropics.

Materials and Methods

Study site

This study was carried out in the Biological School Forest of Andalas University (HPPB), Limau Manis Campus, Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia. The location is 17km east from Padang City. The HPPB locates on foot hills ranging from 300m to 450m above sea level and consists of a secondary closed forest area (Forest) with some matured trees and a open forest area (Garden) with various kinds of pioneer trees. We select 100 trees for this study in these 2 areas (Table 1). Tree numbers for observation of growth rates, litter-fall rates and respiration were 96, 25 and 21, respectively.

Table 1 A list of trees for some observation of this study in the Biological School Forest of Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatra
Circles and figures in this table show target trees for each observation
Site Tree No. Family Species Initial dbh(cm) Dendro. obs. LF obs. Trap No. Dark Resp.
Garden 761 Verbenaceae Vitex pubscense 13.98  
Garden 762 Meliaceae Swietenia mahagoni Jack. 12.74  
Garden 764 Verbenaceae Vitex pubscense 8.59    
Garden 772 Moraceae Ficus pandana 15.03 1  
Garden 773 Sterculiaceae Cimmesonia batremina 20.01    
Garden 775 Apocinaceae Alstonia angustiloba Miq. 17.59 2
Garden 777 Fabaceae Parkia speciosa 12.01    
Garden 778 Fabaceae Pterocarpus indicus Willd 12.02  
Garden 779 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga javanica 23.27 3  
Garden 780 Sapotaceae Ilex cymosa Bl. 12.53    
Garden 781 Euphorbiaceae Aleurites moluccana (L) Willd 12.41  
Garden 784 Clusiaceae Cratoxylon cf formosum (Jack) Dyer 17.51 4
Garden 785 Euphorbiaceae Hevea brasica 17.31 5
Garden 787 Sapotaceae Ilex cymosa Bl. 13.01    
Garden 791 Fabaceae Acasia mangium 35.79 6  
Garden 793 Verbenaceae Vitex pubscense 14.27 7
Garden 796 Sapotaceae Ilex cymosa Bl. (I. pleiobrochiata) 16.71  
Garden 797 Symplocaceae Symplocus cochinchinensis 14.1 8  
Garden 798 Theaceae Eurya acuminata 12.35 9
Garden 799 Euphorbiaceae Glochidion rubrum 17.72  
Garden 800 Moraceae Ficus fulva Reinus 11.4  
Garden 801 Sterculiaceae Commersonia batremina 9.84    
Garden 803 Fabaceae Milletia atropurpuera Bth 28.36    
Garden 804 Araliaceae Arthrophyllum diversifolia 15.28    
Garden 805 Clusiaceae Ixonantes petiolaris 19.48    
Garden 807 Moraceae Artocarpus kemando Miq. 22.38 10  
Garden 809 Tilliaceae Trichespermum javanicum Bl. 26.59    
Garden 810 Euphorbiaceae Mallotus paniculata 9.61    
Garden 812 Lauraceae Litsea cf brachystachya (Bl.) Boerl. 22.58    
Garden 813 Melastomataceae Rhodamia cinerea 11.41    
Garden 814 Lecytidaceae Baringtonia gigantostachya Koord. & Val. 9.98    
Garden 817 Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus glaber (NL.) 22.3    
Garden 818 Clusiaceae Garcinia parvifolia Miq. 37.95    
Garden 819 Sapotaceae Ilex cymosa Bl. 12.98  
Garden 820 Fabaceae Archidendron jiringa (Jack) Nielsen 15.95  
Garden 821 Fagaceae Quercus argentata 23.9 11
Garden 822 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga gigantea 19.59    
Garden 824 Piperaceae Piper aduncum 8.75  
Garden 825 Theaceae Schima wallichii 49.81 17  
Garden 826 Moraceae Arthocarpus dadah 34.85 18  
Garden 827 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga tanarius 17.5 19
Garden 828 Moraceae Ficus variegata 10.55 20  
Garden 830 Moraceae Ficus variegata 40    
Garden 832 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga triloba 14.49    
Garden 834 Moraceae Ficus variegata 8.3    
Garden 835 Tiliaceae Trichespermum javanicum Bl. 24.26    
Garden 836 Sterculiaceae Sterculia rubiginosa Vent 17.49    
Garden 838 Lauraceae Litsea diversifolia Bl. 16.65    
Garden 839 Moraceae Arthocarpus dadah 43.8    
Garden 840 Theaceae Schima wallichii 12.78  
Garden 842 Fagaceae Quercus oidocarpa 47.99    
Garden 843 Ulmaceae Gironiera nervosa Planch 10.08    
Garden 844 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga triloba 19.45 21  
Garden 845 Moraceae Ficus variegata 30    
Garden 846 Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea macrophylla M.A. 11.92 22
Garden 847 Clusiaceae Garcinia lucens Pierre 22.19    
Garden 850 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga gigantea 26.62 23  
Garden 851 Fagaceae Lithocarpus hystrix 11.61    
Garden 852 Fagaceae Lithocarpus hystrix 18.59 24  
Garden 853 Symplocaceae Symplocus cochinchinensis 14.65    
Garden 854 Clusiaceae Ixonantes petiolaris 20.5 25  
Garden 855 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga javanica 13.81  
Garden plot Lecytidaceae Baringtonia gigantostachya Koord. & Val.   15  
Garden   Euphorbiaceae Mallotus cf paniculata     16  
Garden plot Sterculiaceae Commersonia batremina     12  
Garden plot Sterculiaceae Commersonia batremina     13  
Garden plot Sterculiaceae Commersonia batremina     14  
Forest 858 Celastoraceae Bhesa paniculata Aru 42.99    
Forest 859 Lauarceae Litsea elliptica (Bl.) Noerl. 13.08    
Forest 860 Moraceae Artocarpus elaeticus 26.98    
Forest 861 Moraceae Ficus variegata 44.72    
Forest 862 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga triloba 24.09    
Forest 863 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga gigantea 18.66    
Forest 864 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga hypoleuca 20.71    
Forest 865 Euphorbiaceae Croton laevifolius 30.4    
Forest 866 Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea macrophylla M.A. 33.25    
Forest 867 Myristicaceae Knema furfuracea (Hk. et. Th) 27.71    
Forest 868 Euphorbiaceae Macaranga gigantea 48.32    
Forest 869 Lauraceae Achtinodaphne cf glomerata (Bl.) Nees 16.4    
Forest 870 Fagaceae Lithocarpus hystrix 39.6    
Forest 871 Anacardiaceae Melanochya cf caesia (Bl.) Ding Hou 34.21    
Forest 872 Fagaceae Lithocarpus elegans 64.55    
Forest 873 Sapindaceae Nephelium sp. 69.3    
Forest 874 Fabaceae cf Dialium sp. 63.8    
Forest 875 Burceraceae Santeria tomentosa 53.4    
Forest 876 N.I. N.I.(not identified) 35.15    
Forest 877 Fagaceae Quercus argentata 38.21    
Forest 878 Fagaceae Quercus argentata 40.62    
Forest 879 Fagaceae Quercus argentata 36.47    
Forest 880 Fagaceae Quercus argentata 36    
Forest 881 Anacardiaceae Swintonia schwenchii 36.9    
Forest 882 Fagaceae Quercus argentata 46.4    
Forest 883 Fagaceae Quercus argentata 32.79    
Forest 884 Anacardiaceae Swintonia schwenchii 52.15    
Forest 885 Fagaceae Quercus oidocarpa 55.22    
Forest 886 Dipterocarpaceae Dipterocarpus grandiflora (Blco) Blco. 59.5    
Forest 887 Dipterocarpaceae Shorea multiflora (Bucrk) Sym 69.3    
Forest 888 Sapotaceae Palaquium rostratum Burek 36.53    
Forest 889 Lauraceae Litsea elliptica (Bl.) Boerl. 60.7    
Forest 890 Fabaceae Archidendron jiringa (Jack) Nielsen 26.7    

Air temperature was constant throughout the year, being 27.0℃ at the nearest meteorological station at Tabing, Padang. Monthly rainfall is over 200mm as average values of the last 70 years, though February, June and July tend to be dry (Fig 1). The first 6 months of this study had heavy rain, and the following 1 month from March to April, 2001 suffered dry weather under 100mm in monthly rainfall.

Fig 1 Seasonal changes of monthly rainfall at Tabing. Left diagram shows the pattern during study period from 2000-2001, and right diagram shows an average pattern during the last 70 years.

Fig 1 Seasonal changes of monthly rainfall at Tabing

Left diagram shows the pattern during study period from 2000-2001, and right diagram shows an average pattern during the last 70 years.

Observation of litter fall

We established 25 litter traps made of mesh cloth 1mm size under the canopy of target trees in a garden area (Table 1). A receiving window of a trap is circle and 1m2 in area, and is set up at 1.5m height above the ground. Litter samples were collected at intervals of 15 days and were sorted into 5 categories being leaves, branches, flower, fruits and others. Sorted samples were dried by oven under conditions of 80℃ for 4 days before weighing.

Observation of stem growth rates

Stem growth rates of target trees were observed with dendrometer at intervals of 15 days. Target trees were 96 individuals consisting of 33 trees in a forest area and 63 trees in a garden area of HPPB, respectively. Their initial stem diameter (D) ranged from 8.59cm to 69.30cm.

Observation of dark respiration of leaves, water permeability and density of stomata

Dark respiration rates of leaves were observed by CO2 gas analyzer, Fuji Denki Company. 21 trees out of 96 individuals for the upper observation, stem growth rates, were used for this measurement. The measurement was carried out in a laboratory with freshly sampled leaves from HPPB within a few hours. These leaf samples were kept during a given time in a closed camber under dark conditions, and their respiration rates were determined by changes of CO2 concentration in a camber during the time.

Water permeability of the 21trees for dark respiration observation were determined by using water pressure method (Heine 1971, Siau 1971, Muktar et al. 1990). In the laboratory, each wood samples were inserted horizontally into rubber tube and give a water pressure. The water pressure were applied in direction of water movement in the tree and maintained constant at 1.2 atom. From the other extremity of wood sample, water was thrown out. When the water flow becomes constant, the measurement was started. Indicator of water permeability was the amount of water that came out through the wood sample per unit time. The rate of water permeability was calculated from the mean of 3 measurements from each sample. Water permeability, P [cm3(H2O)/cm.Mpa.h] was expressed as P=[Q×L] / [t.p.A], where Q stands the water volume flown through the sample piece (cm3), L for the length (cm), t for the time of measurement (h), p for the water pressure difference between both ends (Mpa), and A for cross-sectional area (cm2).

Replicas of the under surface of collected leaves of the 21 trees were sampled about 1cm2 in area by the SUMP method. Density of stomata was observed with the replica by microscopic examination.

Results and Discussion

Seasonality of litter-fall rates

We tried to classify seasonal changes of litter-fall rates into the 4 patterns based on constancy of fall-rates of leaf and flower/fruit litter (Table 2).

Table 2 4seasonal patterns of litter-fall rates based on constancy of fall-rates of leaf and flower/fruit litter.

Table 2 4seasonal patterns of litter-fall rates based on constancy of fall-rates of leaf and flower/fruit litter.

Pattern of constant LF+ constant FF (Appendix 1):

The following 8 species belonged to this group (A type). They are Acasia mangium, Artocarpus kemando, Commersonia batremina, Eurya acuminata, Macaranga tanarius, Mallotus cf paniculata, Symplocos cochinchinensis, Vitex pubscense.

5 bold typed species are typical pioneer species in this area.

Eurya acuminata/Vertical axis: relative rates of LF (broken lines) and FF (histograms).

Eurya acuminata

Vertical axis: relative rates of LF (broken lines) and FF (histograms).

Pattern of constant LF+ intensive FF (Appendix 2):

This category could be classified into 2 groups based on degree of constancy of leaf-litter fall rates. Category of high constancy of LF + intensive fall of FF was consisted of 3 species (B type). They are Baccaurea macrophylla, Macaranga javanica, Quercus argentata.

The following 4 species showed low constancy of LF+ intensive fall of FF (C type).

Baringtonia gigantostachya, Ficus pandana, Macaranga gigantea, Macaranga triloba.

These species have large leaves in size. This would be one reason of high fluctuations in LF fall-rates showing low constancy of LF.

Macaranga javanica/high constancy of LF

Macaranga javanica

high constancy of LF

Baringtonia gigantostachya/low constancy of LF

Baringtonia gigantostachya/p>

low constancy of LF

Pattern of intensive LF+ intensive FF (Appendix 3):

This category could be classified into 2 groups based on duration of high leaf-litter fall rates.

Schima wallichii/a group with the long period

Schima wallichii

a group with the long period

Alstonia angustiloba/a group with the short period

Alstonia angustiloba

a group with the short period

A group of long period was consisted of 4 species (D type). High rates continued during 3-4 months. They are

Hevea brasica, Ixonantes petioralis, Lithocarpous hystrix, Schima wallichii

The following 4 species showed high intensity of LF within 1-2 months (E type). They are

Alstonia angustiloba, Artocarpus dadah, Cratoxylon cf formosum, Ficus variegata.

Seasonality of stem growth rates

Seasonal changes of stem growth rates could be classified into 4 groups by their patterns. They are Linear type (44 trees): trees with constant growth rates throughout the observation period, Lag type (20 trees): trees with low growth rates at the initial period of this observation, Sigmoid type (16 trees): trees with low growth rates at the initial and last periods of this observation, and Step type (16 trees): trees with discontinuous growth patterns.

Linear type/Blue line: Gyroniera, Green: F. variegata, Red: Garcinia, Yellow: I.petiotalis

Linear type

Blue line: Gyroniera, Green: F. variegata, Red: Garcinia, Yellow: I.petiotalis

Lag type Blue: Q. argentata, Green: Q. oidocarpa, Red: Shorea

Lag type

Blue: Q. argentata, Green: Q. oidocarpa, Red: Shorea

Sigmoid type Blue: Schima, Green: F. variegata, Red: Trichespermum, Yellow: Santeria

Sigmoid type

Blue: Schima, Green: F. variegata, Red: Trichespermum, Yellow: Santeria

Step type Blue: A. dadah, Green: M. trlroba, Red: F. variegata, Yellow: Symplocus

Step type

Blue: A. dadah, Green: M. trlroba, Red: F. variegata, Yellow: Symplocus

Linear type was major behavior for these target tree species, however some species showed different types (Appendix 4). Biological meanings of these types would be cleared at the successive study of this project.

Density of stomata and physiological properties

Table 3 shows results of these observations. Density of stomata ranged from 176 /mm2 to 576 /mm2, and showed no correlation with dark respiration rates and water permeability. Water permeability tended to be higher for tree species with higher stem growth rates.

Table 3 Density of stomata, dark respiration and water permeability of 21 trees.
Tree No. Species Number of stomata
l/mm2
Dark respiration
mg CO2/g/hour
Water permeability
cm3(H2O)/cm.Mpa.h
761 Vitex pubscense 480 536 18
762 Swietenia mahagoni Jack. 576 416 25
775 Alstonia angustiloba Miq. 512 475 112
778 Pterocarpus indicus Willd 224 490 98
781 Aleurites moluccana (L) Willd - 373 114
784 Cratoxylon cf formosum (Jack) D 304 454 16
785 Hevea brasica 208 418 65
789 Symplocus cochinchinensis 423 295 32
793 Vitex pubscense 464 544 14
796 Ilex cymosa Bl. (I. Pleiobrochiata) 336 280 66
798 Eurya acuminata 208 249 91
799 Glochidion rubrum 288 403 76
800 Ficus fulva Reinus 448 452 88
819 Ilex cymosa Bl. 528 368 58
820 Archidendron jiringa (Jack) Nielsen 512 446 76
821 Quercus argentata 416 294 14
824 Piper aduneum 256 371 87
827 Macaranga tanarius 320 639 82
840 Schima wallichii 480 249 75
846 Baccaurea macrophylla M.A. 176 256 76
855 Macaranga javanica 208 486 84

References

  • Burger, W.C. 1974. Flowering periodicity at four altitudinal levels eastern Ethiopia. Biotropica 6:38-42.
  • Jakson, J.F. 1978. Seasonality of flowering and leaf fall in Brazilian subtropical lower montane moist forest. Biotropica 10: 38-42.
  • Maruyama, K. 1979. Comparative studies on the phenological sequences among different tree species and layer communities. Bull. Niigata Univ. For. 12: 19-41.

Appendix

Appendix 1 A groups showing constant LF+ constant FF.

Vitex pubscense

Vitex pubscense

? Mallotus paniculata

? Mallotus paniculata

Eurya acuminata

Eurya acuminata

Symplocus cochinohinensis

Symplocus cochinohinensis

SQB

SQB

Artocarpus kemando Miq.

Artocarpus kemando Miq.

Macaranga tanarius

Macaranga tanarius

Acasia mangium

Acasia mangium

Appendix 2 Two groups showing constant LF + intensive FF.

High constancy of LF.

Macaranga javanica

Macaranga javanica

Quercus argentata

Quercus argentata

Baccaurea macrophilla M.A.

Baccaurea macrophilla M.A.

Low constancy of LF.

Macaranga triloba

Macaranga triloba

Ficus pandana

Ficus pandana

Baringtonia gigantostachya koord. & Va

Baringtonia gigantostachya koord. & Va

Macaranga gigantea

Macaranga gigantea

Appendix 3 A groups showing intensive LF + intensive FF.

Low intensity of LF.

Hevea brasica

Hevea brasica

Schima wallichii

Schima wallichii

Lithocarpus hystrix

Lithocarpus hystrix

Ixonantes petiolaris

Ixonantes petiolaris

High intensity of LF.

Ficus variegata

Ficus variegata

Arthocarpus dadah

Arthocarpus dadah

Alstonia angustiloba Miq.

Alstonia angustiloba Miq.

Cratoxylon of formosum (Jack) Dyer

Cratoxylon of formosum (Jack) Dyer

Appendix 4 Seasonal changes of stem growth rates and litter-fall rates

Details of each type in this table are shown in text.
Family Species Tree No. Initial Dbh
(cm)
Stem growth
type
Litter-fall
type
N.I. N.I. 876 35.15 Linear  
Anacardiaceae Melanochya cf caesia (BL) Ding Hou 871 34.21 Lag  
Anacardiaceae Swintonia schwenchii 884 52.15 Step  
Anacardiaceae Swintonia schwenchii 881 36.9 Linear  
Apocinaceae Alstonia angustiloba Miq. 775 17.59 Sigmoid IntLF+IntFF(E)
Araliaceae Arthrophyllum diversifolia 804 15.28 Step  
Burceraceae Santeria tomentosa 875 53.4 Sigmoid  
Celastoraceae Bhesa paniculata Aru 858 42.99 Linear  
Clusiaceae Cratoxylon cf formosum (Jack) Dyer 784 17.51 Sigmoid IntLF+IntFF(E)
Clusiaceae Garcinia lucens Pierre 847 22.19 Linear  
Clusiaceae Garcinia parvifolia Miq. 818 37.95 Sigmoid  
Clusiaceae Ixonantes petiolaris 805 19.48 Lag  
Clusiaceae Ixonantes petiolaris 854 20.5 Linear IntLF+IntFF(D)
Dipterocarpaceae Dipterocarpus grandiflora (Blco) Blco. 886 59.5 Linear  
Dipterocarpaceae Shorea multiflora (Bucrk) Sym 887 69.3 Lag  
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus glaber (NL.) 817 22.3 Linear  
Euphorbiaceae Aleurites moluccana (L) Willd 781 12.41 Linear  
Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea macrophylla M.A. 866 33.25 Linear  
Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea macrophylla M.A. 846 11.92 Linear ConLF+IntFF(B)
Euphorbiaceae Croton laevifolius 865 30.4 Step  
Euphorbiaceae Glochidion rubrum 799 17.72 Linear  
Euphorbiaceae Hevea brasica 785 17.31 Sigmoid IntLF+IntFF(D)
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga gigantea 822 19.59 Lag  
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga gigantea 868 48.32 Linear  
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga gigantea 863 18.66 Linear  
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga gigantea 850 26.62 Lag ConLF+IntFF(C)
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga hypoleuca 864 20.71 Linear  
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga javanica 779 23.27 Linear ConLF+IntFF(B)
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga javanica 855 13.81 Linear  
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga tanarius 827 17.5 Sigmoid ConLF+IntFF(A)
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga triloba 844 19.45 Step ConLF+IntFF(C)
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga triloba 862 24.09 Step  
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga triloba 832 14.49    
Euphorbiaceae Mallotus paniculata 810 9.61 Linear  
Fabaceae Acasia mangium 791 35.79 Linear ConLF+ConFF(A)
Fabaceae Archidendron jiringa (Jack) Nielsen 890 26.7 Step  
Fabaceae Archidendron jiringa (Jack) Nielsen 820 15.95 Linear  
Fabaceae Koompasia sp/Dialium sp 874 63.8 Step  
Fabaceae Milletia atropurpuera Bth 803 28.36 Step  
Fabaceae Parkia speciosa 777 12.01 Sigmoid  
Fabaceae Pterocarpus indicus Willd 778 12.02 Lag  
Fagaceae Lithocarpus hystrix 852 18.59 Lag IntLF+IntFF(D)
Fagaceae Lithocarpus hystrix 851 11.61 Lag  
Fagaceae Lithocarpus hystrix 870 39.6 Step  
Fagaceae Lithocarpus elegans 872 64.55 Step  
Fagaceae Quercus argentata 882 46.4 Lag  
Fagaceae Quercus argentata 883 32.79 Lag  
Fagaceae Quercus argentata 877 38.21 Linear  
Fagaceae Quercus argentata 821 23.9 Linear ConLF+IntFF(B)
Fagaceae Quercus argentata 878 40.62 Linear  
Fagaceae Quercus argentata 880 36 Linear  
Fagaceae Quercus argentata 879 36.47 Lag  
Fagaceae Quercus oidocarpa 885 55.22 Lag  
Fagaceae Quercus oidocarpa 842 47.99 Lag  
Lauraceae Achtinodaphne cf glomerata (Bl.) Nees 869 16.4 Linear  
Lauraceae Litsea cf brachystachya (Bl.) Boerl. 812 22.58 Sigmoid  
Lauraceae Litsea diversifolia Bl. 838 16.65 Linear  
Lauraceae Litsea elliptica (Bl.) Boerl. 889 60.7 Linear  
Lauraceae Litsea elliptica (Bl.) Noerl. 859 13.08 Linear  
Lecytidaceae Baringtonia gigantostachya Koord. & Val. no nea   Linear ConLF+IntFF(C)
Lecytidaceae Baringtonia gigantostachya Koord. & Val. 814 9.98 Linear  
Melastomataceae Rhodamia cinerea 813 11.41 Linear  
Meliaceae Swietenia mahagoni Jack. 762 12.74 Lag  
Moraceae Arthocarpus dadah 839 43.8 Step  
Moraceae Arthocarpus dadah 826 34.85 Lag IntLF+IntFF(E)
Moraceae Arthocarpus elaeticus 860 26.98 Linear  
Moraceae Arthocarpus kemando Miq. 807 22.38 Linear ConLF+ConFF(A)
Moraceae Ficus fulva Reinus 800 11.4 Sigmoid  
Moraceae Ficus pandana 772 15.03 Linear ConLF+IntFF(C)
Moraceae Ficus variegata 845 30 Step  
Moraceae Ficus variegata 834 8.3 Sigmoid  
Moraceae Ficus variegata 861 44.72 Lag  
Moraceae Ficus variegata 830 40 Linear  
Moraceae Ficus variegata 828 10.55 Lag IntLF+IntFF(E)
Myristicaceae Knema furfuracea (Hk. et. Th) 867 27.71 Linear  
Piperaceae Piper aduncum 824 8.75 Sigmoid  
Sapindaceae Nephelium sp. 873 69.3 Linear  
Sapotaceae Ilex cymosa Bl. 780 12.53 Sigmoid  
Sapotaceae Ilex cymosa Bl. 787 13.01 Linear  
Sapotaceae Ilex cymosa Bl. 819 12.98 Sigmoid  
Sapotaceae Ilex cymosa Bl.(I. pleiobrochiata) 796 16.71 Linear  
Sapotaceae Palaquium rostratum Burek 888 36.53 Linear  
Sterculiaceae Commersonia batremina 773 20.01 Linear ConLF+ConFF(A)
Sterculiaceae Commersonia batremina 801 9.84 Linear ConLF+ConFF(A)
Sterculiaceae Sterculia rubiginosa Vent 836 17.49 Step  
Symplocaceae Symplocus cochinchinensis 853 14.65 Step  
Symplocaceae Symplocus cochinchinensis 797 14.1 Step ConLF+ConFF(A)
Theaceae Eurya acuminata 798 12.35 Linear ConLF+ConFF(A)
Theaceae Schima wallichii 825 49.81 Sigmoid IntLF+IntFF(D)
Theaceae Schima wallichii 840 12.78 Lag  
Tiliaceae Trichespermum javanicum Bl. 835 24.26 Sigmoid  
Tiliaceae Trichespermum javanicum Bl. 809 26.59 Sigmoid  
Ulmaceae Gironiera nervosa Planch 843 10.08 Linear  
Verbenaceae Vitex pubscense 764 8.59    
Verbenaceae Vitex pubscense 761 13.98 Linear  
Verbenaceae Vitex pubscense 793 14.27 Lag ConLF+ConFF(A)