Study on non timber forest product in Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepalネパール・アンナプルナ自然保護区における非木材生産物の伝統的利用に関する研究

Authors著者名

Puspa Ratna Shakya1), Ila Shrestha1), Shishir Paudel1), Sujita Shakya1)

Affiliations著者所属

  1. 1) Natural History Society of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal

Abstract要約

This paper deals with the traditional utilization of Non Timber Forest Products as practised by local residents in Annapurna Conservation Area, Central Nepal, Modi Khola Valley and lower part of Mustang in particular. The former lies in the south side of the Annapurna massif of the Himalaya while the later is the southern part of trans-Himalayan district, Mustang, which records least amount of rainfall in the country. This work reports on 94 + 58 species of flowering plants and 2 ferns. These species, along with scientific name, local name, utility, the site from where the specimens of the species were collected, and collectors' number are enumerated in five broad categories as per their utility. The categories are: I. Edible plants, II. Medicinal plants, III. Plants for making dhup (incense), IV. Fodder plants, and V. Others. All the information on utility were collected from the local knowledgeable Gurung and Thakuri people through interviews and interaction meeting during the field visit of the study work funded by the Nature Conservation Society of Japan / the Pro Natura Foundation of Japan through ProNatura Fund 2000.


アンナプルナ自然保護区(ACA)の非木材生産物の利用研究については、3回の連続的な野外調査が行われた。研究エリアは、(a) 湿った南側のモディ谷と、(b) アンナプルナ ヒマールの乾燥している北側にあるムスタン低地部である。国情が不安定な状況で研究に影響を受けたが、研究は2つのフィールドで行われた。研究によって150種以上についての伝統的な利用の情報が、主にグルン族の情報提供者から集まった。さらに、非木材生産物の科学的命名を確実にするために、1,000個以上の標本により274以上の植物種の収集が行われ、研究地域の植物相を理解するための助けとなった。研究は、2000年度プロ・ナトゥーラ・ファンドによって行われた。グルン族が居住し、観光客のインパクトが比較的少ないアンナプルナ自然保護区の中南部においてさらなる研究が必要であると思われる。

(推薦者:土田 勝義 訳)

Introduction

Ever since his appearance on earth, man has been utilizing plants and plant materials to fulfil his various needs like that of food, shelter, medicinal resources, etc. Along the string of civilization progress the magnitude of plant utilization expanded unknowingly from genetic to ecosystem levels varied with the availability. Knowledge and experience on the utility of plants descended from generation to generation and became traditional based upon their life style depending on environmental condition. There exist in vast amount of traditional knowledge that are still unexposed, unrecorded and concealed in living memories of the people, who live in isolated areas rich in plant resources. Such traditional knowledge is rapidly vanishing from the world along with the holders' mortal lives. Nepal is one of the countries, where geographical position with immense diversity of climatic conditions that support high biological diversity and multiple ethnicity of over sixty groups. Among these ethnic groups Gurung is the one, which concentrated in and around Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Central Nepal.

Gurungs are popularly known as brave and faithful warrier/fighter like the Sherpas as the high mountain climbers both in national and international arena. They are a hardy hill people living mostly along southern slopes of Annapurna Himal in central part of Nepal. Their traditional territories extend from Gorkha District through Lamjung and Kaski to Syangja districts all in Gandhaki zone. They are also found in the north along Kali Gandaki, Marsyangdi, and Budhi Gandhaki rivers (Bista 2000). However, the bulk of the Gurung population is concentrated in Kaski and Lamjung Districts.

Economy of Gurung community is based on agriculture and sheep breeding. However, one of the most important sources of family income is from the pensions and salaries of those who joined armies in Britain, India and to some extent in Nepal.

Very few people intermarry with non-Gurung women. So, they remain very much the same in their way of life (Bista 2000) that contribute in preserving their ethnic identity.

Annapurna Conservation Area

Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) (Figure 1) was established in the process of the conservation of Nature and Natural resources. It is hilly and mountainous with altitudinal gradient ranging from less than 1,000m to over 8,000m. Being located at the central part of Nepal it occupies an area of great phytogeographical significance in the sense of being the "Platform", where eastern and western Himalayan floristic elements merge together. It is also a location, where Himalayan and the Trans-Himalayan physiographic and climatic environmental conditions are present within its boundary that covers an area of 7,629 km2. These phenomena make this area unique and rich in bio-resources in the form of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs). It extends in 55 Village Development Committees in 5 districts of Kaski, Myagdi, Lamjung, Mustang and Manang. Its Directorate in Pokhara, the head quarter of Kaski, coordinates all programmes and activities through its 7 field bases. Over 100,000 indigenous residents of various ethnicities, among which Gurung is one of the most important one, inhabit ACA. Gurung, although spreads in many parts of ACA, predominates in the S/W part. The inhabitants including Gurungs, Thakuries, living in Mustang are heavily influenced by Tibetan culture.

Figure 1 Location Map of Annapurna Conservation Area

Figure 1 Location Map of Annapurna Conservation Area

Figure 1 Location Map of Annapurna Conservation Area

Figure 1 Location Map of Annapurna Conservation Area

Figure 1 Location Map of Annapurna Conservation Area

Need of the study

People residing in ACA are attracted by Tourist industry. Gurung community is of no exclusion. Tourist influx in Annapurna and lower Mustang areas indicates that the avenue of tourist industry in these areas is widening. Local people are induced in changing their old traditional profession to stabilising services and facilities for tourists. As a result the flow of traditional knowledge in utilizing NTFPs from older to younger generations is disrupted in the present context and trend. Ready-made materials/commodities that are easily available in the market are increasingly utilized. As an impact of it, the traditional knowledge on the utility of the NTFPs is quickly vanishing. For example locally and freely available shrubs of Lonicera sp. are being used since ages as material for reinforcing the flat roof build with compact mud. Such flat roofs are the characteristic features of low rainfall area like Mustang, which lies in rain shadow area. This age-old traditional technology has now been replaced fast by exotic technology with expensively air lifted cement and steel for reinforcement.

Till this date knowledge on ethnobotany relating to Gurung is still meagre. Literature survey indicated that no work devoted to the utility of NTFPs as practised by Gurung community has been carried out in Mustang and Kaski districts. Few papers are, however, available relating to the Gurungs of Manang (Manandhar 1987a, Pohle 1990) and Lamjung (Coburn 1984, Manandhar 1987b, Shrestha 1999) districts.

In these contexts attempts have been made to tap such traditional knowledge on plant utility from this ethnic group dwelling in ACA, Kaski and Mustang districts in particular and to put them in record. It is hoped this work will contribute in expanding the limited state of knowledge on traditional utilization of plants from wilderness as practised by Gurung community.

Objectives of the Study

Annapurna Conservation Area Project's (ACAP's) mission statement reads "To promote, conserve and manage nature in all its diversity balancing human needs with the environment on a sustainable basis for prosperity - ensuring maximum community participation with due cognizance of the linkages between economics, environment and ethics through a process in which people are both the principal actors and beneficiaries." In congruence with this mission statement this study aimed to explore NTFP resources and knowledge on their utilization, accumulated by experience and handed down over generations in the local communities, Gurung in particular.

Study Area

Two climatically contrasting areas inside the Annapurna Conservation Area for study were selected. They are: (a) Modi Khola valley and (b) Lower Mustang area.

  • (a). Modi Khola valley lies in the south-western part of the ACA (Fig. 1A). Modi khola is a tributary of the river Kali Gandhaki, one of the main Himalayan antecedent rivers entering Nepal from the high Tibetan plateau of the People's Republic of China. Modi Khola originates from the northern part of Annapurna Sanctuary area closely surrounded by well-known peaks like Hiunchuli, Annapurna South, Annapurna I, Gangapurna, Annapurna III, Machhapuchhre, etc. The study area covers 2 Village Development Committees (VDCs) viz. Lumle and Ghandruk under Ghandruk Field Base. Altitudinally it ranged from 920m to 4,200m. Lumle, being the wettest area with 5,550mm of annual rainfall in the country has a great climatic significance. Phytogeographically also this valley is important in the sense that west Himalayan elements like Aesculus indica terminates its eastward distribution in this valley.

Figure 1A Map of Study Area (Modi Khola Valley)

Figure 1A Map of Study Area (Modi Khola Valley)

Quick looks at the vegetation found in the valley reveals that much of the original vegetation types have been disturbed along the route followed. Broad vegetation types encountered during the field trip are summarised in Fig.2A.

Figure 2A Vegetation types in the Study Area (Modi Khola Valley) in Annapurna Conservation Area

Figure 2A Vegetation types in the Study Area (Modi Khola Valley) in Annapurna Conservation Area

  • (b). Lower Mustang area includes Marpha, Dhumba danda on south side of Jomsom, the head quarter of Mustang district, and Muktinath area that lies north-east of Jomsom (Fig. 1B). The study area covers 3 Village Development Committees (VDCs) viz. Jomsom, Marpha, and Muktinath under Jomsom Field Base. It covered an altitudinal range between 2,700m and 4,000m. As the area lies in the north of the Annapurna massif of the main Himalayan range, the effect of monsoon is weakest as indicated by lowest annual rainfall of 295mm at Jomsom.

Figure 1B Map of Study Area (Lower Mustang)

Figure 1B Map of Study Area (Lower Mustang)

Central Asiatic Steppe type of vegetation predominates in most of the area. However in northern aspect of the mountain protected by wind, coniferous forests prevail. Conifers like Pinus wallichina, Cupressus torulosa dominate in the lower area while Abies spectabilis forest occur higher up above 3,000m altitude (Fig. 2 B).

Figure 2B Vegetation types in the Study Area (Lower Mustang) in Annapurna Conservation Area

Figure 2B Vegetation types in the Study Area (Lower Mustang) in Annapurna Conservation Area

Methodology

This study was carried out in three field visits. The first was of preliminary and reconnaissance type to Landruk village. It established familiarity and contacts with local people. It was followed by the second visit (June 19 to July 5, 2001) to Modi Khola valley in Kaski District. This field visit attempted to explore the portion of the valley lying within the ACA starting from Birethanti at 920m (south-western entrance to ACA) to a little above Annapurna Base Camp at 4,200m altitudes covering from subtropical to alpine bioclimatic zones. The third study visit during Autumn from 28 September to 12 October 2001 concentrated in southern part of Mustang district.

One informant cum guide, who possessed knowledge on plants, was selected in consultation with local people. Many herbarium specimens were collected in his presence and information on utility aspect of the collected specimens wherever possible was taped from him and other people. During the study visit in Modi Khola valley a well-known Gurung village, Chhomrong, was selected as a place of meeting for discussion and interaction. Interviews and interactions with a group of 8 selected knowledgeable informants from Gurung Community were conducted and discussed and rechecked/ updated the information received from the accompanied informant cum field guide. Similarly, Dzarkot was selected for the same purpose during the field visit to Lower Mustang, where information on traditional utility of plants was collected from the people belonging to Gurung and Thakuri communities. "Thakuri is a genetic term describing a group that developed into the highest social and political order out of the selected people from among Khas, Magar, Gurung and Bhote" (Bista 2000). In this sense our Thakuri informants are assumed to be a part of Gurung community. Their social structure was found to be indistinguishable from that of other Gurungs in Lower Mustang. This supports the assumption. A herbal practitioner locally known as Amchi was consulted. His practice is based on Tibetan medicine system. So is the case with the information he provided us. For this purpose he often refers Illustration of Medicinal Material of Tibetan Medicine, a voluminous book in Tibetan script.

During these meetings all the collected herbarium materials were displayed one by one in expectation of their unanimity of information on the traditional utility and nomenclature of the species in question in Gurung language. All together 21 informants (18 belonging to Gurung community, 2 Thakuris and one was Bhandari from Bahun Community) provided information. The collected specimens were identified later in the national herbarium at Godawari, Lalitpur, Nepal for future reference. A set of all the specimens collected has been stored in the National Herbarium, KATH in Nepal. Another set of the collections has been presented to the ACAP Directorate at Pokhara.

Results

Out of our total 279 collections (Specimen No. 10620 - 10341) we were able to collect information on traditional uses of 154 species of higher plants including 152 species of flowering plants and 2 ferns. These are enumerated below in 5 broad categories as per their utility. These are:

  1. I. Edible plants (52 species) that include species used as fruits, vegetables, spices, etc.;
  2. II. Medicinal Plants (63 species) Plants used for medicinal purposes in various maladies, 3 used in veterinary medicines and 3 as insect repellants;
  3. III. Plants used in making dhup (Incense) (8 species);
  4. IV. Fodder Plants (28 species) including 25 species used as food for various animals including cattle, buffaloes, horses, goats, etc. and 3 species known as toxic to those animals. These are inserted at the end of the group.
  5. V. Others (18 species) plants that do not fall under these preceding groups (1 - 5).

Many species are of multiple uses. These are repeatedly enumerated in related groups. Hence, the counts of species from all groups are more than the total number of species.

In each group, the plant species are arranged in an alphabetical order. The family (in box-parenthesis) to which the species belongs follows the botanical name. Name(s) in local languages as provided by Gurung (G), Gurung-Thakuri (GT), and Amchi (A) and few in Tibetan names (T) and Nepali (N) are given. Here the botanical names of species and family are italicized and bold while the names in local language i.e. other than English are simply italicized. Local name(s) is/are followed by uses as practiced by Gurungs (except where indicated Gurung-Thakuri (GT), and Amchi (A) as the source of information on uses), locality, altitude, from where voucher specimen were collected or noted, and at the end collectors: SP (Shakya, PR and Paudel, S) and SSS (Shakya, PR; Shrestha, I and Shakya, S.) and collectors' number are given. Some plants, unidentified or unknown but with local name and utility at this moment are also included at the end of the respective group in the enumeration.

All the specimens have been stored in the National Herbarium, [KATH] Nepal, where mostly the staff there of identified our specimens. One set of the specimens has been presented to the ACAP Directorate at Pokhara.

Enumeration

I. Edible plants

  1. Aconogonum molle (D. Don) Hara [Polygonaceae]- Tibon (G) - Young shoots are used in making pickle. Khuldi, 2,300m. SP10503.
  2. Aesculus indica (Colebr. ex Cambess.) Hook. [Hipocastanaceae]- Roasted cotyledons are eaten. Komrong, 1,880m; Khundi, 2,310m S & P. 10379.
  3. Arisaema griffithi Schott. [Araceae]- Dhokayo (G). Leaves and petioles are fermented, dried and eaten as vegetable or mixed in potato curry. Noted at Deorali, 3,000m.
  4. Arisaema sp. [Araceae]- Dhokayo (G). Leaves and petioles are fermented, dried and eaten as vegetable or mixed in potato curry. Machhapuchhre Base Camp - Deorali, 3,540m. SP10484.
  5. Asparagus sp. [Liliaceae]- Lauto (G). Young shoots are eaten. Noted at Landruk.
  6. Bauhinia variegata Linn. [Leguminosae]- Flowers are eaten as vegetable or as pickle. Birethanti - Landruk, 1,200m.
  7. Berberis cf everstiana Aherendt. [Berberidaceae]- Tichari (GT); Kerisng (A)- Fruits are eaten. Above Muktinath, 4,000m. SSS10608.
  8. Berberis chitria Lindl. [Berberidaceae]- Teesya (G). Fruits are eaten. Deorali, 2,950m. SP10489.
  9. Berberis mucrifolia [Berberidaceae]- Kersing (A). Fruits are eaten. Above Muktinath, 3,640m. SSS10596.
  10. Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don [Betulaceae]- Saur (G). Stem and root bark are used for tendering meat while cooking and also used for making tea. Khuldi, 2,310m.
  11. Bistorta [Polygonaceae]- Rhombu (Ti). Roots are eaten raw (GT); it is said to be sweet (A). Above Muktinath, 3,660m. SSS10609.
  12. Calamintha unbrosa Benth. [Labiatae]- Hya Pudinaa (G). Vegetative parts are used for making pickle. Deorali - Himalaya, 2,900m. SP10496.
  13. Cardamine violaceum (D. Don) Wall. [Cruciferae]- Used as vegetable.
  14. Chocha (GT); Taaksher (A)-. Young plants are eaten as vegetable (GT). Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10586.
  15. Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees ex Eberm. [Lauraceae]- Lepe (G), Pinge (G). Leaves and stem bark are used for flavouring tea.
  16. Circium wallichii DC. [Compositae]- Kajra (GT); Chhyangsher (A)- Roots are eaten raw after removing bark (GT). Roots are sweet, and are chewed during cold (A). Khingar, 3,260m. SSS10565.
  17. Convolvulus arvensis L. [Convolvulaceae]- Ghyaremba (G). Young shoots are used as vegetable (GT). Khingar, 3,260m. SSS10564.
  18. Coriaria terminalis Hemsl. [Coriariaceae]- Unsin (G). Fruits are eaten. Hinku Odar - Deorali, 2,900m. SP10422.
  19. Elaeagnus sp. [Elaeagnaceae]- Timoor (G). Fruits are edible. Khuldi, 2,300m. SP10504.
  20. Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex J.E. Sm. [Moraceae]- Talsi (G). Fruits are eaten.
  21. Ficus sp. [Moraceae] Nibhaaro (G). Fruits edible. Birethanti - Syauli, 1,100m.
  22. Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Lacaita [Rosaceae]- Nandur (G). Fruits are eaten. Above Landruk, 1,700m. SP10346.
  23. Holboellia latifolia Wall. [Lardizabalaceae]- Mamalkach (G), Malkati (G). Fruits are eaten. Bamboo, 2,200m.
  24. Ilex sp. [Aquifoliaceae]- Naalgyon (G). Red fruits edible. Chhomrong Khola, 1,730m. SP10371.
  25. Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. [Lauraceae]- Sil timoor (N). Fruits are used in preparing tea.
  26. Mahonia napaulensis DC. [Berberidaceae]- Gomi (G). Fruits are edible. Noted at Bamboo, 2,170m.
  27. Malva verticillata L. [Malvaceae]- Chambaalhaamu (GT); (A). Young shoots are used for vegetable (GT). Khingar - Dzarkot , 3,300m. SSS10571.
  28. Platenthera arcuata Lindl. [Orchidaceae]- Tuber are eaten. Khuldi - Bamboo, 2,280m. SP10382 and Dovan - Himalaya, 2,400m. SP10401.
  29. Polygonatum verticellatum (L.) All. [Liliaceae]- Premdhaa (G). Young shoots are used as vegetable.
  30. Prunus nalaulensis (Ser.) Steud. [Rosaceae]- Puri (G), Khaoin (G). Black fruits are eaten. Bamboo - Dovan, 2,260m. SP10390.
  31. Ribes alpestre Wall. ex DeAe. [Grossulariaceae]- Fruits are eaten. Dhumba Danda, 3,200m. SSS 10546.
  32. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek [Cruciferae]- Chhyurukpaa (A). Used as vegetables (GT); (A). Khingar - Dzarkot , 3,300m. Mustang. 8-10-2001. SSS10572.
  33. Rosa sericea Lindl. [Rosaceae]- Taangso (N); Sontopa (Ti). Fruits are eaten. Dhumba, 2,750m. SSS10533.
  34. Roscoea alpina Royle [Zinziberaceae]- Tubers are eaten. Sinuwa - Bamboo, 2,320m. SP10378.
  35. Rubus calycinus Wall. ex D. Don [Rosaceae]- Nontu. Fruits are eaten. Khuldi - Bamboo, 2,200m. SP10385.
  36. Salvia hians Royle ex Benth. Jhip, Jhipmaa (GT); Jhipchu chhemo (A)-. Young stem paste is eaten with salt (GT). Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10580.
  37. Saurauia napaulensis DC. [Saurauiaceae]- Gogan (G). Ripe fruits are eaten.
  38. Schizandra grandiflora (Wall.) Hook.f. et Thoms. [Schizandraceae]- Naalgyon (G). Fruits are eaten. Deorali - Himalaya, 2,680m. 10497.
  39. Taraxacum [Compositae]- Mhendo seroloma (GT); Bhalangomaa (A)-; Khurmang (A). Leaves are used for vegetable. Above Muktinath, 3,850m. SSS10597.
  40. Thlapsi arvense L. [Cruciferae]- Khaapraak (GT); Khaapraakpa (A); Dhekaa (A)- Eaten as green vegetable (GT). Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. Mustang. 8-10-2001. SSS10589.
  41. Thymus linearis Benth. [Labiatae]- Naatokpa (Ti). Plant paste is used as pickle for treating sinuous trouble and the leaves are chewed as chewing tobacco for the same purpose. Dhumba, 2,750m. SSS10522.
  42. Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour. [Cucurbitaceae]- Tunsaarkadu (G). Fruits are eaten. Tilche, 1,880m. SP10508.
  43. Trichosanthes wallichii (Seringe) Wight [Cucurbitaceae]- Nai onte (G). Seeds oily and edible. Chhomrong, 1,730m. SP10372.
  44. Trigonella [Leguminosae]- Kote (A)- Used as vegetable (GT); (A)- Khingar, 3,260m. SSS10566.
  45. Urtica dioca L. [Urticaceae]- Polo (G). Young shoots are used as vegetable to clear stomach. Noted at Landruk.
  46. Viburnum mullaha Buch. -Ham ex D. Don [Sambucaceae]- Asingkra (G), Malto (G). Fruits edible, juice is used as a souring agent in preparation of pickle. Above Landruk, 1,700m. SP10347.
  47. Zanthoxylum armatum DC. [Rutaceae]- Prum (G). Pericarp of the fruits is used as a spice especially for pickle. Siunli - New Bridge, 1,350m. SP10361.
  48. Unidentified [Umbelliferae]- Syamhe (GT); Choyo (A). Fruits are used as spice (GT). Above Muktinath, 4,000m. SSS10602.
  49. Unidentified- [Leguminosae]- Kote (N). Tender shoots are used as vegetables. Chimle, 2,750m. Mustang. SSS10521.
  50. Unknown- Baarabgui (G) Fruit edible. Khuldi - Sinuwa, 2,289m. SP10505.
  51. Unknown- Kharchhi (G). Black fruits edible. Siunli - New Bridge, 1,320m. SP10359.
  52. Unknown- Nakhle (G). Young shoots are used for preparing pickle.

II. Medicinal Plants

  1. Arisaema griffithi Schott. [Araceae]- Dhokayo. Fermented and dried leaves and petioles are useful in diarrhoea. Noted at Deorali, 3,000m.
  2. Arisaema sp. [Araceae]- Dhokayo- Fermented and dried leaves and petioles are useful in diarrhoea. Machhapuchhre Base Camp - Deorali, 3,540m. SP10484.
  3. Artimisia [Compositae]- Khennaa (A)-. Chrushed leaves are allowed to smell to stop bleeding from the nose (A)-. SSS10587.
  4. Asparagus sp. [Liliaceae]- Lauto (G). Bitter root juice is useful against headache. Noted at Landruk.
  5. Aster albescens (DC.) Hand.-Mazz. [Compositae]- Taareghuram (GT); Yuku (A)-. Whole plant power is one of the components of medicinal preparation used in heart trouble. Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. Mustang. 8-10-2001. SSS10583.
  6. Astragalus [Leguminosae]- Jomising (A). one of the components of medicinal preparation used as blood purifier. Above Muktinath, 3,620m. SSS10594.
  7. Berberis mucrifolia [Berberidaceae]- Kersing (A). Root paste is applied on swollen part of the body (GT); Fruits are antipyretic and blood purifier (A)- Above Muktinath, 3,640m. SSS10596.
  8. Beriberis [Berberidaceae]- Tichari (GT); Kerisng (A)- Paste of root is applied on the swollen parts of the body (GT); Fruits are used as antipyretic and blood purifier (A). Above Muktinath, 4,000m. SSS10608.
  9. Caragana cf. gerardiana Royle [Leguminosae]- Hendi chhermaa (GT), Jomising (A)- Plants are buried under the door to ward off evil sprit (GT); Power of heartwood is a component of medicinal preparation used as blood purifier (A). Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10573.
  10. Chilanthes albo-marginatus Cl. [Parkeriaceae]- Fronds are used in curing gastric trouble. Landruk.
  11. Cicerbita macrorhiza (Royle) P. Beauve [Compositae]- Taakpaa ngyung ngyung (G). Flowers are boiled in edible oil and used during earache (GT); A substitute of 'Lute dhorie' (A). Above Muktinath, 3,800m. SSS10610.
  12. Circium wallichii DC. [Dipsacaceae]- Kajra (GT); Chhyangsher (A)- Roots are sweet, and are chewed during cold (A). Khingar, 3,260m. SSS10565.
  13. Clematis tibetana Kuntze [Ranunculaceae]- Dhundugaa (GT). Paste of the branches is used as plaster on swollen parts of the body (GT). Dhumba, 2,750m. SSS10523.
  14. Compylandra aurantiaca Baker [Liliaceae]- Root paste is used against diarrhoea.
  15. Corydalis chaerophylla DC. [Papaveraceae]- Ratyaulo (N) - Root juice is given during food poisoning, vomiting and diarrhoea (Kuphat in Nepali). Above Landruk, 1,900m. SP10350.
  16. Dactylorhiza hatageria (D. Don) Soo [Orchidaceae]- Paanchaunle- Paste prepared by rubbing the tubers is used in burns. Hinku Odar, 2,900m. SP10416.
  17. Delphenium grandiflorum L. [Ranunculaceae]- Kolaak sruti (GT); Jhyakamba (A); Timusaa (A). Paste of whole plant is used during eye trouble. Above Muktinath, 3,630m. SSS10595.
  18. Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. [Labiatae]- Jhipchi karo (G). Flowers and leaves are the components for antipyretic medicine (A). Khingar - Dzarkot, 3,300m. SSS10568.
  19. Epilobium [Onagraceae]- Chha dhumingyung (A). Juice of all above ground parts is used as a component of medicinal components. Khingar - Dzarkot, 3,300m. SSS10569.
  20. Euphorbia royleana Boiss. [Euphorbiaceae]- 1 - 2 drops of latex with milk or curd is given to recover the loss of appetite.
  21. Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss. [Euphorbiaceae]- Tichyaari (GT); Tharumu (A). Used as one of the component medicine (GT). Above Muktinath, 3,900m. SSS10615.
  22. Galium aparine L. [Rubiaceae]- Lethovaachhi (G). Said to be used in wound. Deorali, 2,950m. SP10487.
  23. Gentiana depresa D. Don [Gentianaceae]- Ghangaachyum (A). Whole plant power is used against various toxicities. Above Muktinath, 3,850m. SSS10598.
  24. Juniperus squamata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don [Cupressaceae]- Paamaa (A).Crushed branch is applied against scabies (A).Above Muktinath, 3,600-4,000m. SSS10620.
  25. Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. [Lauraceae]- Sil timoor (N). Infusion prepared from 8 or 9 ripe fruits fried in ghee and boiled in a glass of water with a little bit of salt is used against flatulence.
  26. Mahonia napaulensis DC. [Berberidaceae]- Gomi (G). Bark extract is used for curing persistent fever, fruits edible. Noted at Bamboo, 2,170m.
  27. Malva verticillata L. [Malvaceae]- Chambaalhaamu (GT); (A). Power of whole plant is used as diuretic and seed against swollen joints. Khingar - Dzarkot, 3,300m. SSS10571.
  28. Morus sp. [Moraceae]- Kiukaaphal (G). 1 - 3 teaspoon full of root juice thrice daily is given to the infants to expel ascaris.
  29. Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifolia (Wall. ex Benth) Hemsl. [Scrophulariaceae]- Used for curing fever, cough and as anthelmintic.
  30. Oxyria digyna (Linn.) Hill [Polygonaceae]- Hyetondaa (G). Juice from leaves is used against diarrhea and dysentery. Deorali - Himalaya, 2,900m. SP10493.
  31. Paris polyphylla Sm. [Liliaceae]- Paste prepared by rubbing thick root is applied on the fore head during headache and root juice is given in fever. Bamboo, 2,200m.
  32. Pedicularis longiflora var. tubiformis (Klotzch) P.C. Soong [Scrophulariaceae]- Lugro shero (G). The plant is used against liver trouble (A)- Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10579.
  33. Periploca calophylla (Wight) Falc. [Asclepiadaceae]- Aire jhyaal (G), Chautaa chor (G). White latex is used in fresh cuts and wound for quick healing. Siunli - New Bridge, 1,330m. SP10360.
  34. Platenthera arcuata Lindl. [Orchidaceae]- Paste prepared by rubbing root and tuber on stone is applied for clearing the scar of the burn. Khuldi - Bamboo, 2,280m. SP10382 and Dovan - Himalaya, 2,400m. SP10401.
  35. Pterocephalus hookeri (C.B. Clarke) Diels [Dipsacaceae] Paanfi (A). Whole plant powder is used against various troubles (A). Above Muktinath, 3,800m. SSS10618.
  36. Rhododendron anthopogon Bholu kaaru (G). Leaves are used in hot bath during body ache and is one of the components in medicinal preparation used as diuretic (A).
  37. Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don. [Ericaceae]- Pharra; Bholu maaru (GT); Taali mukpu (A). Leaf powder is sometime used in hot bath during body ache. Hinku Odar, 2,900m. SP10417; Above Muktinath, 3,600 - 4,000m. SSS10612.
  38. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek [Cruciferae]- Chhyurukpaa (A). Powder of plant used with water against cold (A). Khingar - Dzarkot, 3,300m. Mustang. 8-10-2001. SSS10572.
  39. Rubus ellipticus Sm. [Rosaceae]- Palaan (G). Infusion of young shoot or root powder in water is used as antipyretic and remedy for headache. Landruk.
  40. Saurauia napaulensis DC. [Saurauiaceae]- Gogan (N). Juice from stem bark is used in throat and chest pain.
  41. Swertia racemosa (Griseb) C.B. Clarke [Gentianaceae]- Tikta (GT). Extract produced after boiling whole plant is used as antipyretic (GT); and also used for liver trouble. Above Muktinath, 3,700m. SSS10614.
  42. Tanacetum [Compositae]- Kherkaar (A). Plants are used in hot bath during cold. Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. Mustang. 8-10-2001. SSS10581.
  43. Taraxacum [Compositae]- Mhendo seroloma (GT); Bhalangomaa (A); Khurmang (A). Leaves are used as medicine for caring gastric (acidity) (GT); Plant powder is used for controlling bile disorder (A). Above Muktinath, 3,850m. SSS10597.
  44. Thalictrum [Ranunculaceae]- Dhamin chakyu (GT). Medicinal (GT); Leaves and seeds are used against cold and fever and as a component of medicinal preparation. Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10574.
  45. Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br. [Leguminosae]- Siptaak rhemaa (GT); Dhukshe (A); Paste out of whole plant or root alone applies on joint or muscle pain. Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10585.
  46. Thlapsi arvense L. [Cruciferae]- Khaapraak (GT); Khaapraakpa (A)-; Dhekaa (A)- Seeds are use as liver tonic. Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10589.
  47. Thymus linearis Benth. [Labiatae]- Naatokpa (Ti). Plant paste is used as pickle for treating sinuous trouble and the leaves are chewed as chewing tobacco for the same purpose. Dhumba, 2,750m. SSS10522.
  48. Urtica dioca L. [Urticaceae]- Polo (G). Young shoots are used as vegetable to clear stomach. Noted at Landruk.
  49. Verbascum thapsus L. [Scrophulariaceae]- Baander ko ngaamaa (GT); Ngon sherche (A)- Leaf paste is applied on wound (GT). Leaves and flowers are used as blood purifier and in joint pain (A). Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10576.
  50. Unidentified [Caryophyllaceae]-Gyolyudu (G). Toxic plant. Annapurna Base Camp, 4,000m. SP10462.
  51. Unidentified [Compositae]- Khemaa maara (G). Leaf power is medicinal (GT). Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS 10584.
  52. Unidentified [Compositae]- Tikta (Ti) - Root power or infusion produced after boiling root with water is given as antipyretic (GT). Above Muktinath, 4,000m. SSS10606.
  53. Unidentified [Crassulaceae]- Gombu rholjan (GT); Outse (A). Component of medicinal preparation (GT); Plant paste is applied on septic wound (A). Above Muktinath, 3,800m. SSS10611.
  54. Unidentified [Labiatae]- Naisinee (G). Juice from leaves is used in athlete foot and itching and against scabies. Landruk - Siunli, 1,300m. SP10353.
  55. Unidentified [Umbelliferae]- Syamhe (GT); Choyo (A). Seeds are used to control fever (A). Above Muktinath, 4,000m. SSS10602.
  56. Unkmown- Chocha (GT); Taaksher (A)-. Plant paste or power is given to the patients of common cold (A). Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10586.
  57. Unkwon No. SP10367. Chhomrong, 2,090m. Bitter juice from the stem is used for stomach pain.

Veterinary medicine

  1. Dicentra scandens (D. Don) Walp. [Papaveraceae]- Oral jhyaal (G). Fodder and roots are used for gastric trouble and as medicine to promote placental discharge in cattle. Chhomrong, 1,800m. SP10370.
  2. Dichroa fabrifuga Lour. [Hydrangiaceae]- Juice from the plant is used for repelling insect from the buffalo's wound. Noted at Landruk.
  3. Unidentified [Lauraceae]- Palurin (G). Toxic to cattle. Siunli - New Bridge, 1,320m. SP10358.

Insect Repellents

  1. Artemisia sp. [Compositae]- Used for repelling body louse. Noted at Landruk.
  2. Bounninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meissn. [Rutaceae]- To ward off tiny insect sulsule.
  3. Houtunia cordata Thunb. [Saururaceae]- Kotaaghyo (G). Leaves are used for repelling bedbugs and fleas from the bed.

III. Plants used for making dhup (Inscense)

  1. Artemisia [Compositae]- Phuldokpaa (G). Shoot power is used in Dhup (insense). Dhumba Danda, 3,000m. SSS10541.
  2. Didymocarpus primuliformis D. Don [Gesneriaceae]- Whole plant is dried and powdered for using as incense. Chhomrung Khola, 1,800m. SP10373.
  3. Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. [Umbelliferae]- Dee (G). Root powder is used as 'Dhup' insence to ward off evil spirit. The smell of the plant promotes high altitude sickness. Bamboo - Dovan, 2,340m. SP10395.
  4. Juniperus communis L. [Cupressaceae]- Dhupi (N); Paamu (Ti). Sometimes used branches for burning as Dhup (GT). Dhumba, 2,750m. SSS10526.
  5. Leontopodium cf alpinum Cass.- Khempa (Ti). Power of whole plant as a component of Dhup (GT). Above Muktinath, 3,800m. SSS10619.
  6. Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don [Ericaceae]- Bholu kaaru (GT) Leaf powder is used as one of the major ingredients of incense. (GT).
  7. Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don. [Ericaceae]- Pharra; Bholu maaru (GT); Taali mukpu (A). Leaf powder is used as one of the minor ingredients of incense. Hinku Odar, 2,900m. SP10417; Above Muktinath, 3,600 - 4,000m. SSS10612.
  8. Tanacetum nubigenum Wall. ex DC. [Compositae]- Khembaa (Ti); Khembaa karu (Ti). Used as one of the component in making Dhup (Insense). Dhumba, 2,800m. SSS10529.

IV. Fodder Plants

  1. Acanthopanax cissifolius (Griff. ex Seems.) Harms [Araliaceae]- Pachuchi (G). Fodder for sheep and goats. Deorali, 2,950m. SP10488.
  2. Acer stachyophyllum Hiern. [Aceraceae]- Hyamelaan (G). Fodder and bed for cattle. Bamboo - Dovan, 2,240m. SP10389.
  3. Artimisia [Compositae]- Khempa nhaakpo (GT); Khemar (A)- Horse feeding (GT).
  4. Astragalus ? [Leguminosae]- Themjaa (G). Intoxicates horses when eaten. Dhumba, 2,800m. SSS10528.
  5. Astragalus [Leguminosae]- Jomising (A). After burning leaves and thorns, the remaining stem if given to cattle, they give more milk (GT). Above Muktinath, 3,620m. SSS10594.
  6. Caragana [Leguminosae]- Hendi chhermaa (GT), Jomising (A)- Plants are eaten by goats (GT); Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10573.
  7. Cotoneaster [Rosaceae]- Chhelewa (GT); Kshetumkoro (A). Fodder and fuel wood. Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10577.
  8. Gentianella [Gentianaceae]- Mhendoki jhyaakku (GT). Eaten by goats. Above Muktinath, 3,640m. SSS10593.
  9. Leucosceptrum canum Sm. [Labiatae]- Jhinchh; Dhurche (G) - Good fodder. Landruk.
  10. Meconopsis napaulensis DC. [Papaveraceae]- Dobochhin (G)- Used as fodder. Deorali, 3,000m. SP10424.
  11. Meliosma dillenifolia (Wall. ex Wight et Arn.) Walp. [Sabiaceae]- Used as fodder. Hinku Odar - Deorali, 2,900m. SP10423.
  12. Parochaetus communis Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don [Leguminosae]- Sonplaadhha (G). Fodder. Deorali - Bagar, 3,030m. SP10427.
  13. Potentilla argyrophylla Wall. ex Lehm. var. astrosanguinia (Lodd.) Hook.f. [Rosaceae]- Fodder for sheep and goats. Annapurna Base Camp, 3,930m. SP10475.
  14. Pouzolgia sanguinea (Bl.) Mers. [Urticaceae]- Pletaa chhi (G). Used as fodder. Chhomrong, 1,740m. SP10372A.
  15. Premna interrupta Wall. ex Schauer [Verbenaceae]- Toglyonchi (G). Fodder. Sinuwa, 2,140m. SP10375.
  16. Prunus cerasoides D. Don [Rosaceae] Common fodder. Landruk.
  17. Strobilanthes sp. [Acanthaceae]- Boblaa kyuba (G). Fodder. Dovan - Himalaya, 2,450m. SP10409.
  18. Taraxacum sp. [Compositae]- Bhitte dha (G). Used as vegetable.
  19. Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br. [Leguminosae]- Siptaak rhemaa (GT); Dhukshe (A). Only eaten by goats (GT). Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10585.
  20. Valleriana hardwickii Wall. [Vallerianaceae]- Naipopon (G). Good fodder for water buffalo. Bamboo - Dovan, 2,400m. SP10407.
  21. Woodwardia biserrata C. Presl. Nausin sutar (G).
  22. Unidentified [Leguminosae]- Gujree jhyaal (G). Fodder. Khuldi - Bamboo, 2,300m. SP10381.
  23. Unidentified [Leguminosae]- Kote (N). Used as Fodder for horse. Chimle, 2,750m. Mustang. SSS10521.
  24. Unidentifiesd [Compositae]- Taareghuram (GT); Yuku (A)- Horse feeding (GT); Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10583.
  25. Unknown- Kharchhi (G). Black fruits edible also used as fodder. Siunli - New Bridge, 1,320m. SP10359.

Toxic to cattle

  1. Lindera pulcherrima (Nees) Benth ex Hook. [Lauraceae]- Vaudaar (G). Young shoots are toxic to cattle. Bamboo - Dovan, 2,260m. SP10391.
  2. Polygala arrilata Buch.- Ham. ex D. Don [Polygalaceae]- Toxic to cattle.
  3. Prunus napaulensis (Ser.) Steud. [Rosaceae]- Puri; Khaoin (G). Young branch toxic to cattle. Bamboo - Dovan, 2,260m. SP10390.

V. Others

  1. Caragana [Leguminosae]- Hendi chhermaa (GT), Jomising (A)- Plants are buried under the door to ward off evil sprit, Dzarkot- Ranipauwa. 3,500m. SSS10573.
  2. Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. ex DC. [Ranunculaceae]- Used as one of the component in preparing local yeast cake (Marcha).
  3. Coelogyne nitida (Wall Mss.) Lindl. [Orchidaceae]- Saano salindha (G). Plant having religious significance. Above Landruk, 1,800m. SP10348.
  4. Daphnephyllum himalayense (Benth.) Mull. Arg. [Daphnephyllaceae]- Raktachandan. Used in making bed for Buffalo and compost. Noted at Landruk.
  5. Delphenium grandiflorum L. [Ranunculaceae]- Kolaak sruti (GT); Jhyakamba (A); Timusaa (A). Leaves are smoked like tobacco (GT). Above Muktinath, 3,630m. SSS10595.
  6. Girardinia diversifolia (Link.) Fris [Urticaceae]- Paasyar (G). Fibre is extracted from stem bark.
  7. Juniperus communis L. [Cupressaceae]- Dhupi; Paamu (Ti). Used for preparing compost (mixing). Dhumba, 2,750m. SSS10526.
  8. Lonicera [Caprifoliaceae]- Jhersing (Ti). Used in reinforcing the mud in roofing, shoots poisonous to goats. Dhumba Danda, 2,900m. SSS10538.
  9. Marsdenia lurida Edgew. ex Madden [Asclepiadaceae]- Malakachyo (G). Decorative fibre from the fruits. Bamboo - Dovan, 2,230m. SP10386.
  10. Meliosma dillenifolia (Wall. ex Wight et Arn.) Walp. [Sabiaceae]- The leaves are used for packing milk product Kurauni. Hinku Odar - Deorali, 2,900m. SP10423.
  11. Pholidota imbricata Hook. [Orchidaceae]- Gajapapu (G). Sap from the pseudobulbs is used as gum. Landruk - Siunli, 1,300m. SP10355.
  12. Phyllanthus sp. [Euphorbiaceae]- Naubhyaa (G). Plants are easily propagated by cuttings and are hence used in fencing. Landruk - Siunli, 1,400m. SP10352.
  13. Rosa sericea Lindl. [Rosaceae]- Taangso (N); Sontopa (Ti). Liquor is prepared from the fruits. Dhumba, 2,750m. SSS10533.
  14. Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Fleming [Rubiaceae]- Ink is prepared from the ripe and dark blue fruits.
  15. Sarcoccoca wallichii Stapf. [Buxaceae]- Chhautee; Mlankhyaachhonde (G). Leaves are used to ward off evil spirit, food for Monal. Chhomrong, 1,800m. SP10369.
  16. Sellinium wallichianum (DC.) Raizada & Saxena [Umbelliferae]- To ward off evil spirit.
  17. Solanum sp. [Solanaceae]- Mhepancho (G). Infusion of ripe seeds in water is used for repelling blood-sucking leeches from nostrils of the cattle.
  18. Tanacetum nubigenum (Wall. ex DC.) Kitam. ex Kitam. et Gould [Compositae]- Sunphooldhah (G). Flowers are put near pillow for fragrance. Annapurna Base Camp, 4,000m. SP10459.

Acknowledgement

We fully acknowledge the financial support of the Nature Conservation Society of Japan / Pro Natura Foundation of Japan through Pro Natura Fund 2000. We express our sincere gratitude to Prof. Katsuyoshi Tsuchida of Shinshu University, Matsumoto, who kindly accepted to be our recommender for the Pro Natura Fund 2000. We are very thankful to scientific staff of the National Herbarium of Nepal, Mrs. R. Joshi in particular, for naming our most of the specimens we collected during our field works in Annapurna Conservation Area. Thanks are also due to Mr. G. Gurung, Director, ACAP for his kind permission to carry on our field study in ACA. We owe our heartfelt thanks to all knowledgeable informants, who, during our field visits shared valuable knowledge preserved in their memories on traditional utilisation and nomenclature of plants in local languages.

References

  • Annapurna Conversation Area, Biodiversity Conservation Data Project.1994. Supplementary Copy of Final Report (Appendix Vol. I).
  • Bista, D.B. 2000. People of Nepal. Ratna Pustak Bhanmdhar, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Coburn, B. 1984. Some native medicinal plants of western Gurungs. Kailash (Nepal), 11(1-2):55-87.
  • Dobremez, J.F., Joshi, D.P., Bottner, P., Jest, C. and Vigny, F. 1984. Carte Ecologique du Nepal- Region Butwal - Mustang 1/250,000. Cahier Nepalais - Documents, 11. ARS, Paris.
  • Forest Resource Information System Project (FRISP). 1998. Forest Resources of the Western Development Region, 1998, Publication, 71. HMG/FINNIDA, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Hara, H. and Williams, L.H.J. 1979. An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. Vol. II. Trustees of British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London.
  • Hara, H., Chater, O. and Williams L.H.J. 1982. An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal, Vol. III. Trustees of British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London.
  • Hara, H., Stern, W.T. and Williams L.H.J. 1978. An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal, Vol. I. Trustees of British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London.
  • HMG of Nepal, Dept. of Medicinal Plants. 1982. Wild Edible Plants of Nepal. Bull. Dept. Med. Pl., 9.
  • HMG of Nepal, Dept. of Medicinal Plants. 1970. Medical Plants of Nepal. Bull. Dept. Med. Pl., 3.
  • King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation. 1997. Annapurna Conservation Area Management Plan.
  • Malla, S.B. and Shakya, P.R. 1984-85. Medicinal Plants. In Majupuria (Ed.) Nepal- Nature's Paradise. White Lotus Co. Ltd, Bangkok.
  • Malla, S.B., Shakya, P.R., Rajbhandari, K.R., Subedi, M.N. and Shrestha, B.L. 1996. Identification Manual for some Non-timber Forestry Product of Nepal. Forest Resource Information System Project (FRISP) HMG/FINNIDA, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Malla, S.B., Shakya, P.R., Rajbhandari, K.R., Subedi, M.N. and Shrestha, B.L. 1997. Identification Manual for Selected Non-timber Forest Products of Nepal. Forest Resource Information System Project (FRISP) HMG/FINNIDA, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Manandhar, N.P. 1987a. An ethnobotanical profile of Manang valley, Nepal. J. Econ. & Taxn. Bot, 10(1):207-213.
  • Manandhar, N.P. 1987b. Traditional Medicinal plants used by tribals of Lamjung District, Nepal. Int. J. Crude Drug Res, 25(1): 236-240.
  • Pohle, P. 1990. Useful Plants of Manang District A Contribution to the Ethnobotony of the Nepal Himalaya. Nepal Research Centre Publication, 16. A. Wezler, Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GMBH, Stuttgart.
  • Rabhandari, K.R. 2001. Ethnobotany of Nepal. Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Shakya, P.R. 1997. Handling Floral Diversity of Nepal. Paper presented in the Workshop on Intellectual Property Right Rights and Biodiversity, Kathmandu organized by Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST), Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries (COSTED), India and Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India.
  • Shakya, P.R. Shakya, P.M. and Shakya R. 1999. Research on Medicinal Plant in Annapurna Conservation Area (ACAP). A Study report prepared for Annapurna Conservation Area Project, King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation.
  • Shrestha K. K and Shah J.P., 1995. Diversity and Conservation Strategy of Potential Medicinal Plants in Manang (Gyasumdo Valley), King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation/Annapurna Conservation Area Project and Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Shrestha, I. 1998. Ethnobotanical studies of Gurung communities in Bichaur village of Lamjung District. Study report submitted to International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Mountain Resource Division, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Index of Local names with equivalent Botanical names

  • G = Gurung names provided by Gurung informants in Modi valley, Kaski district,
  • GT= Gurung - Thakuri names provided by Gurung and Thakuri informants at Lower Mustang,
  • A = Names given by Amchi (a practitioner of Tibetan Medicine system) at Lower Mustang,
  • Ti = Tibetan names, N = Locally known Nepali names as given by various informants.

  • Aire jhyaal (G) = Periploca calophylla (Wight) Falc.
  • Asingkra (G) = Viburnum mullaha Buch. -Ham ex D. Don
  • Baander ko ngaamaa (GT) = Verbascum thapsus L.
  • Baarabgui (G) (Unknown).
  • Bhalangomaa (A) = Taraxacum sp.
  • Bhitte dha (G) = Taraxacum sp.
  • Bholu kaaru = Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don
  • Bholu maaru (GT) = Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don
  • Boblaa kyuba (G) = Strobilanthes sp.
  • Chaa Unidentified [Caroyophyllaceae].
  • Chambaalhaamu (GT); (A) = Malva verticillata L.
  • Chautaa chor (G) = Periploca calophylla (Wight) Falc.
  • Chha dhumingyung (A) = Epilobium [Onagraceae].
  • Chhautee (G) = Sarcoccoca wallichii Stapf.
  • Chhelewa (GT) = Cotoneaster cf. duthieanus (Schneider) Klotz
  • Chhyangsher (A) = Circium wallichii DC.
  • Chhyurukpaa (A) = Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek
  • Chocha (GT) (Unknown).
  • Choyo (A) Unidentified [Umbelliferae].
  • Dee (G) = Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC.
  • Dhamin chakyu = Thalictrum sp.
  • Dhekaa (A) = Thlapsi aevense L.
  • Dhokayo (G) = Arisaema griffithi Schott
  • Dhokayo (G) = Arisaema sp.
  • Dhukcheraa = Caragana brevispina Royle
  • Dhukshe (A) = Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br.
  • Dhundugaa (GT) = Clematis tibetana Kuntze
  • Dhunyokpaa (Ti) = Potentilla cuueata Wall. ex Lehm.
  • Dhupi = Juniperus communis L.
  • Dhurche (G) = Leucosceptrum canum Sm.
  • Dobochhin (G) = Meconopsis napaulensis DC.
  • Gajapapu (G) = Pholidota imbricata Hook
  • Ghangaachyum (A) = Gentiana depresa D. Don
  • Ghyaremba = Convolvulus arvensis L.
  • Gogan (N) = Saurauia napaulensis DC.
  • Gombu rholjan (GT) Unidentified [Crassulaceae]
  • Gomi (G) = Mahonia napaulensis DC.
  • Gujree jhyaal (G) Unidentified [Leguminosae]
  • Gyolyudu (G) Unidentified [Caryophyllaceae]
  • Hendi chhermaa (GT) = Caragana cf. gerardiana Royle
  • Hya Pudinaa (G) = Calamintha unbrosa Benth.
  • Hyamelaan (G) = Acer stachyophyllum Hiern
  • Hyetondaa (G) = Oxyria digyna (Linn.) Hill
  • Jha aatung (A) Unidentified [Caroyophyllaceae].
  • Jhersing (Ti) = Lonicera sp.
  • Jhinchhi (G) = Leucosceptrum canum Sm.
  • Jhip = Salvia hians Royle ex Benth.
  • Jhipchi karo = Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth.
  • Jhipchu chhemo (A) = Salvia hians Royle ex Benth.
  • Jhipmaa (GT) = Salvia hians Royle ex Benth.
  • Jhyakamba (A) = Delphenium grandiflorum Linn.
  • Jomising (A) = Caragana cf. gerardiana Royle
  • Jomising (A) = Caragana cf. sukiensis C.K. Schneider
  • Kajra (GT) = Circium wallichii DC.
  • Kerisng (A) = Beriberis cf. everstiana Aherendt.
  • Kersing (A) = Berberis? mucrifolia
  • Khaapraak (GT) = Thlapsi aevense L.
  • Khaapraakpa (A) = Thlapsi aevense L.
  • Khaoin (G) = Prunus nalaulensis (Ser.) Steud.
  • Kharchhi (G) (Unknown).
  • Khemaa maara = [Compositae]
  • Khemar (A) = Artimisia cf. roxburghiana Bess.
  • Khembaa karu (Ti) = Tanacetum nubigenum Wall. ex DC.
  • Khembaa (Ti) = Tanacetum nubigenum Wall. ex DC.
  • Khempa (Ti) = Leontopodium cf alpinum Cass.
  • Khempa nhaakpo (GT) = Artimisia cf. roxburghiana Bess.
  • Khennaa (A) = Artimisia sp.
  • Kherkaar (A) = Tanacetum sp.
  • Khurmang (A) = Taraxacum sp.
  • Kiukaaphal (G) = Morus sp. [Moraceae]
  • Kolaak sruti (GT) = Delphenium grandiflorum Linn.
  • Kotaaghyo (G) = Houtunia cordata Thunb.
  • Kote (A) = Trigonella sp.
  • Kote Unidentified [Leguminosae]
  • Kshetumkoro (A) = Cotoneaster cf. duthieanus (Schneider) Klotz.
  • Kutki (N) = Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifolia (Wall. ex Benth) Hemsl.
  • Lauto (G) = Asparagus sp.
  • Lepe (G) = Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. -Ham.) Nees ex Eberm.
  • Lethovaachhi (G) = Galium aparine L.
  • Lugro shero = Pedicularis longiflora var. tubiformis (Klotzch) P.C. Soong
  • Malakachyo (G) = Marsdenia lurida Edgew. ex Madden
  • Malkati (G) = Holboellia latifolia Wall.
  • Malto (G) = Viburnum mullaha Buch. -Ham ex D. Don
  • Mamalkach (G) = Holboellia latifolia Wall.
  • Mhendo seroloma (GT) = Taraxacum sp.
  • Mhendoki jhyaakku = Gentianella moorcroftana (Wall. ex G. Don) Airy Shaw
  • Mhepancho (G) = Solanum sp.
  • Mlankhyaachhonde (G) = Sarcoccoca wallichii Stapf.
  • Naalgyon (G) = Ilex sp.
  • Naalgyon (G) = Schizandra grandiflora (Wall.) Hook.f. et Thoms.
  • Naatokpa (Ti) = Thymus linearis Benth.
  • Nai onte (G) = Trichosanthes wallichii (Seringe) Wight
  • Naipopon (G) = Valleriana hardwickii Wall.
  • Naisinee (G) Unidentified. [Labiatae].
  • Nakhle (G) (Unknown).
  • Nandur (G) = Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Lacaita
  • Naubhyaa (G) = Phyllanthus sp.
  • Nausin sutar (G) = Woodwardia biserrata C. Presl
  • Ngon sherche (A) = Verbascum thapsus L.
  • Nibhaaro (N) = Ficus sp.
  • Nontu (G) = Rubus calycinus Wall. ex D. Don
  • Oembu (A) = Codonopsis sp.
  • Oral jhyaal (G) = Dicentra scandens (D. Don) Walp.
  • Outse (A) Unidentified [Crassulaceae]
  • Paamaa (A) = Juniperus squamata Buch.-Ham. Ex D. Don
  • Paamu (Ti) = Juniperus communis L.
  • Paanchaunle (N) = Dactylorhiza hatageria (D. Don) Soo
  • Paanfi (A) = Pterocephalus hookeri (C.B. Clarke) Diels
  • Paapraak (Ti) = Juniperus communis L.
  • Paasyar (G) = Girardinia diversifolia (Link.) Fries
  • Pachuchi (G) = Acanthopanax cissifolius (Griff. ex Seems.) Harms
  • Paiyun (N) = Prunus cerasoides D. Don
  • Palaan (G) = Rubus ellipticus Sm.
  • Palurin (G) Unidentified. [Lauraceae].
  • Pharra (G) = Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don
  • Phuldokpaa = Rabdosia rugosa (Wall. ex Benth.) Hara
  • Phuldokpaa = Artemisia sp.
  • Pinge (G) = Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees ex Eberm.
  • Pipee (Ti) = Pedicularis longiflora var. tubiformis (Klotzch) P. C. Tsoong
  • Pletaa chhi (G) = Pouzolgia sanguinea (Bl.) Mers.
  • Polo (G) = Urtica dioca L.
  • Premdhaa (G) = Polygonatum verticellatum (L.) All
  • Prum (G) = Zanthoxylum armatum DC.
  • Puri (G) = Prunus nalaulensis (Ser.) Steud.
  • Raktachandan (N) = Daphnephyllum himalayense (Benth.) Mull. Arg.
  • Ratyaulo (G) = Corydalis chaerophylla DC.
  • Rhombu (Ti) = Bistorta sp.
  • Rolpaa chhetra (Ti) = Androsace sp.
  • Saano salindha (G) = Coelogyne nitida (Wall Mss.) Lindl.
  • Sansyukpaa (Ti) = Juniperus indica Bertol.
  • Satuwa (N) = Paris polyphylla Sm.
  • Saur (N) = Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
  • Shersyaa (Ti) = Aster indamellus Grierson
  • Sil timoor (N) = Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.
  • Siptaak rhemaa (GT) = Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br.
  • Sonplaadhha (G) = Parochaetus communis Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
  • Sonplaadhha (G) = Polygala arrilata Buch.- Ham. ex D. Don
  • Sontopa (Ti) = Rosa sericea Lindl.
  • Sunphooldhah (G) = Tanacetum nubigenum (Wall. ex DC.) Kitam. ex Kitam. et Gould
  • Syamhe (GT) Unidentified = [Umbelliferae].
  • Taakpaa ngyung ngyung Unidentified [Compositae].
  • Taaksher (A) Unknown.
  • Taali mukpu (A) = Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don
  • Taangso = Rosa sericea Lindl.
  • Taareghuram (GT) = Aster albescens (DC.) Hand.-Mazz.
  • Taatokpa (A) Anaphali tenella DC.
  • Talsi (G) = Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex J.E. Sm.
  • Teesya (G) = Berberis chitria Lindl.
  • Tharumu (A) = Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss.
  • Themjaa = Astragalus leucocephala Grah. ex Benth.
  • Tibon (G) = Aconogonum molle (D. Don) Hara
  • Tichari (GT) = Beriberis cf. everstiana Aherendt.
  • Tichyaari (GT) = Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss.
  • Tikta = Swertia racemosa (Griseb) C.B. Clarke
  • Timoor (G) = Elaeagnus sp.
  • Timusaa (A) = Delphenium grandiflorum Linn.
  • Toglyonchi (G) = Premna interrupta Wall. ex Schauer
  • Tungdhup (Ti) = Heracleum sp.
  • Tunsaarkadu (G) = Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour.
  • Unsin (G) = Coriaria terminalis Hemsl.
  • Vaudaar (G) = Lindera pulcherrima (Nees) Benth ex Hook.
  • Yuku (A) = Aster albescens (DC.) Hand. -Mazz.